Be careful what you sign for...

We sign things all the time. Mostly credit card receipts, but if you have ever bought a car, a home, or signed for a package, you are also representing to the contracting world that, by signing the document, you accept the consequences therein.

For most things, this is fine. Sign your electronic name at the grocery store, sign for your fragile antique cuckoo clock you ordered off ebay. However, if you sign for something as part of your job, or in a business capacity, you need to be much more careful.

Scenario #1:

You are a manager for Big Box Store, who sell mature pokemon to the public. You negotiate a great contract with your supplier of pokemon eggs, Fantasy Farms, in part by not telling them who the eggs were for. You sign the contract only with YOUR NAME. Turns out, people stop caring about pokemon, and Big Box Store stops paying on the contract.

Fantasy Farms sues you for the contract. Who wins?

Weren't you just doing your job? Well, sorta. Texas courts look at a few things.

Who signed the contract? Well, you did. Not the company. You should have signed it, YOUR NAME, manager, Big Box Store. That would have protected you. But you wanted a deal, so you didn't.

Next, did you disclose you were an agent or officer of the company? No, obviously. Strike against you.

If I'm the judge, I'm probably finding that you are stuck paying the contract.

Scenario #2:

You and a buddy are starting your medical practice together. You set up your company (doctor's can have special "professional association" entities, think an LLC just for doctors) and you sign a lease. However, when you sign the lease, you signed it as "Doctor A and Doctor B."   Business dries up and you want to move out. You do, the landlord sues you individually for the remainder of the lease. Can they pierce your corporate entity?

Depends. Again, was it obvious you were signing for the company? Was that disclosed? Did the lease include specific provisions to hold you accountable? (READ YOUR LEASE.) Are your books and records in order, showing you observed the corporate formalities? This scenario is very avoidable if you are careful when you sign the contract. To see what not to do, read this case.


The basic rule is if you sign for something as your name, its on you. If you are the president, manager, or back room clerk for Big Box store, sign YOUR NAME, CLERK, BIG BOX STORE. Else, its on you. The exceptions come if you disclosed who you work for, it was obvious, and if you are the owner/officer of a company, as long as you weren't trying to perpetuate fraud, you should be ok too. Key is disclosure.

This same logic applies for owners of a company, partners in a partnership, members in an LLC, etc. Don't give away your liability protection by signing something without your representative capacity, else your "corporate veil" could be pierced.

Take away:

We all wear many different hats. Individual, parent, spouse, mother, son, employee, owner, etc. Whatever hat you are wearing on any given transaction, make sure you disclose that hat, or you could get stuck wearing a hat you didn't intend.

Gun Trusts, ATF 41P update

Image result for atfFinally, at long last, we have some clarity on what and how the ATF will be regulating the use of "gun trusts" for purchase of National Firearms Act items.

On January 15, the final rules were published in the Federal Register, so we have 6 months to stay under the old rules until these become effective.

Why they changed things:

 "The goal of this final rule is to ensure that the identification and background check requirements apply equally to individuals, trusts, and legal entities. To lessen potential compliance burdens for the public and law enforcement, DOJ has revised the final rule to eliminate the requirement for a certification signed by a chief law enforcement officer (CLEO) and instead require CLEO notification. DOJ has also clarified that the term “responsible person” for a trust or legal entity includes those persons who have the power and authority to direct the management and policies of the trust or legal entity to receive, possess, ship, transport, deliver, transfer, or otherwise dispose of a firearm for, or on behalf of, the trust or entity. In the case of a trust, those with the power or authority to direct the management and policies of the trust include any person who has the capability to exercise such power and possesses, directly or indirectly, the power or authority under any trust instrument, or under State law, to receive, possess, ship, transport, deliver, transfer, or otherwise dispose of a firearm for or on behalf of the trust."

What this means: 

1. No more CLEO signoff. This means as an individual purchaser, (no trust) you don't need the sheriff (nor his deputy, if you're Bob Marley).  Additionally, they removed the proposed threat of having everyone on a trust having to get the CLEO sign off. Copies of applications just get sent to the CLEO. This is a good move.

2. Fingerprints, passport photos, background checks for all "responsible persons." If  (more) background checks help reduce crime and prevent weapons from getting into the hands of those who should not have them, I'm all for it. I still won't believe the justification for this (trusts and entities were allegedly "exempt" from the background check requirements) is that a trust was a free pass for bad guys to get machine guns. Why does the application process take up to a year? I can't fathom a scenario that the ATF does not check the names of all parties listed on a trust, nor does any reputable dealer not check the purchasing individual. But such is life, and after mid June, all your named Trustees, and beneficiaries will likely need to have the new form (fingerprints and photo) to send off.

Take Away:  

As of right now, nothing changes. As of June, we are in a new regime. It will be a little easier if you purchase an NFA item as an individual, and a little more paperwork if you use a trust after that point. Again, the only way for multiple individuals to possess a "shared" item individually is to use the trust or other entity, so if that is your goal, the trust will still be the recommended path. Happy (quiet) shooting.

Probate options when its been more than 4 years...

Time flies. The usual scenario is parent 1 passed away, parent 2 passed away 5 years later, and now the kids are stuck with a mess.

Today we will talk about what happens if the decedent had a will. 

In Texas, you have 4 years to probate a will, in general.  Thankfully, you still have options since we often get passed that point. What you need to do largely depends on what the person had that needs to be transferred.

1. If there is only stuff (pots and pans, personal property) to deal with:

You don't have to do anything. Just hopefully follow the decedent's wishes.

2. If there is real property or financial accounts in the name of the decedent:

You have to do something. In Texas, you can "probate the will as a muniment of title" after 4 years, just like you could before 4 years have passed. The hurdle here comes in that you will have to show good cause that you are "not in default" by waiting more than 4 years, but a reasonable "I didn't know" is usually good enough, and most courts will approve it. You also have to get service on all those who would be heirs at law (if there was no will) or have them sign off on a waiver requesting this process and that they are in agreement. This makes sense, because without the will, the heirs at law would inherit the estate. This can be tricky if the will changes who would be the heirs. Some counties also require the appointment of an attorney ad litem, which is an added cost, so check with your local rules.

This is sufficient to pass title to real property, and the preferred probate process if you don't have any debts (other than those secured by real property, like a mortgage).  This is what I like to call probate light, as there are fewer requirements (no inventory, no notice to creditors. etc.) and its great for everyone. This process should be sufficient to transfer title to bank and other financial accounts, including insurance. Most of the time it is, but I have had varied success with certain national banks and insurance companies (not naming names, chase and bank of america, you know who you are.)

3. If you are stuck with one of those out of town banks who require letters of some sort:

You have to go ahead and bite the bullet of an administration. If you can get all the heirs on board it can be independent (preferred, cheaper) instead of dependent, but its just like if you had no will at all, This is the penalty for waiting too long.

Take away:

If you are faced with the death of a loved one or are the named executor of a will, there are options. If you waited more than 4 years to deal with it, those options shrink, but you still have some choices. There is never an ideal time to process or handle the business that comes with losing a loved one, but thankfully there are processes in the Estates Code that allow for some simplified procedures. 

Caselaw Updates: Tortious Interference with Inheritance Rights

I don't love continuing legal education classes.  Here's why:

1. I don't like many things that are mandatory, and they are.
2. I'm surrounded by lawyers.
3. They are expensive.
4. They are usually in an overly cold/hot room and sometimes via video, which is not an ideal learning environment, (albeit a solid napping environment).

I don't love the dentist either. But both are necessary evils. One of the best CLE's is the annual Advanced Estate Planning and Probate seminar, which highlights updates in the law and new techniques to employ.

Some highlights:


Tortious Interference with Inheritance Rights

There is a cause of action/tort in Texas called "tortious interference with inheritance rights." Sort of. Sort of, as its only recognized and mentioned in some general treatises (Restatement of Torts) and by a handful of cases.

What that means is, if you are in the RIGHT court, you should be able to recover damages from someone who does something improper that causes your inheritance to be diminished.  It is fairly difficult to get an award for this, but it seems the way to punish someone for trying to steal an estate. To do so, you need to prove:

(1) that an interference with one's property or property rights occurred;
(2) such interference was intentional and caused damage; and
(3) the interference was conducted with neither just cause nor legal excuse.

For example, a housekeeper/caregiver forging a bogus beneficiary designation or will on the deathbed of your parent. Or a sibling unduly influencing that parent to cut you out and leave everything to them. Just filing a will contest though, is not tortious interference.

Anyway, two recent rulings affect this tort.  In Jackson Walker v. Kinsel, the Court of Appeals in Amarillo (7th District, Texas) held that actually, there is no tort at all. Their logic is that the Fort Worth Court,  the Texas Supreme Court, and the Texas Legislature haven't spelled out that it actually exists in Texas, so they are not going to do it.

Takeaway: Ok, I get it, courts are not supposed to create law. This however is a bad ruling: its a recognized tort, its a good tort (there needs to be a damages mechanism for people who try and steal estates) and this essentially says if you're in the Amarillo jurisdiction, there really is not any real downside to try and steal someone's inheritance.  This is such a rampant area, and the enforcement of it is almost nonexistent. We need to punish folks who do this, else there is no disincentive for the next one.

The other ruling, In re Hannah, says a tortious interference with inheritance case is filed like a normal tort damages case, if there is no underlying "probate proceeding." Ok, big deal. Well, while expressly acknowledging that tortious interference is a legit cause of action, it can be the only cause of action. Just not in Amarillo, apparently.

Conclusion: There is a theory called tortious interference with inheritance rights where, in theory, you can get money damages against someone who tries to steal/take away/interfere with your inheritance. Just not in Amarillo, for the time being, and likely some other places. If you want to steal inheritances, do so in Amarillo.

I'll write more on updates as they come along, but in a semi-unrelated aside, if you watched the HBO documentary Gasland, you likely saw the sad story of the Town of Dish, who have filed suit against various energy companies for their crashing property values and damages from the pollution and emissions from the oil and gas development and processing in their town. Apparently they lost a summary judgment ruling at the trial court, but our friends at the Amarillo Court of Appeals have them back in the game. Kind of a fun read, if you are into such things.

Life Insurance: Change your Beneficiary Designations..or else

I have written about life insurance before.  In general, I'm not crazy about it, but for some folks it makes sense. I go to a lot of lunches and seminars were different products are presented, and while some are only good for the broker, lots of them offer some really compelling benefits. But I digress.

Where life insurance affects most of my clients is when someone did/did not make a beneficiary designation, or change one after their family situation changes.


Harry Husband and Wendy Wife have two (2) children. Wendy is Harry's beneficiary on their life insurance policy he has through work, and under his will. Their life is great. Until Harry finds out one of "his" children is actually Pete Postman's. Sadly, they get a divorce. Harry later remarries to Sally SecondWife, and passes away after a lovely retirement spent watching Hill Country sunsets, having never thought about or updating his estate planning.

What happens?

It depends, but probably a lawsuit.  If the life insurance policy was a private company administered policy, under Texas law (and lots of other places) the Texas  Family code will treat your ex-spouse as pre-deceasing you, so it would go to your backup beneficiary or just into your estate. Same rules apply for your will, and financial accounts that are not dependent upon ERISA.   Erisa says your beneficiary designation holds up, so if you have a 401k or similar retirement, you better change it. Also, there are a variety of policies that are governed by Federal law (namely, FEGLIA) that have strict rules, and require an update of your beneficiary instead of automatically updating it for you.

Ok, well that's not really fair, is it? How can my no-good ex-wife get something she isn't entitled to?


Your will is only part of the picture. For most, the bulk of your assets are going to be in the form of an IRA, 401k, bank account, insurance or other. You probably filled out a beneficiary designation when you set up the account. You likely forgot about it since then. If you have experienced a change in marital status or family composition, you have a task to check and update all your various accounts, or run the risk of your estate ending up where you did not intend it to be.